Contemplating Selling Your Cell Tower Lease For A Lump Sum?

Many landowners who have leased land for a cell tower on their property are receiving letters from third party companies. These letters suggest to the landowner that due to wireless carrier consolidation and due to technology, that the cell tower lease may be terminated early. By selling the lease to one of these companies, the landowner averts the risk of early termination and can receive a lump sum immediately.

What is important to note is that these companies would not be interested in buying the lease if they felt that there was a significant risk that the lease would, in fact, be terminated. The reality is that cell towers are going to be around for a long time and the leases will continue. That is not to say that your particular cell tower lease is not susceptible to termination, especially in light of carrier consolidation. Recently, wireless companies like AT&T and Cingular have merged. (Both AT&T and Cingular are trademarks of their respective companies). Estimates of how many duplicative sites will be terminated as a result of this merger range from 8,000 to 20,000 sites. While the exact number is unknown, some landowners will receive termination letters in the mail. It is possible to determine whether or not your particular site is susceptible to termination by reviewing the cell towers in your area.

The sale of the land leases for a lump sum is one way of averting this risk. Additionally, there are other reasons why an individual landowner might want to consider selling his cell tower lease rights. These reasons include a scenario where the landowner has plans to sell the underlying property in the next few years. Another scenario is where the lump sum payment can be used to extinguish existing high interest debt.

One area that every landowner contemplating selling a cell tower lease should be concerned with is the taxation of the transaction. It is imperative that you consult with your accountant regarding any offer and whether or not the payment is susceptible to capital gains treatment.

Lastly, there are industry experts available who can assist you in the determination of whether or not the sale of your lease asset is a sensible decision. Make sure that before you make a potentially costly decision, you consult with your accountant and industry experts.

Invisible Radiation Dangers of Cell Towers

Cell phone towers have spread throughout neighborhoods across the world and people are not focused on the invisible radiation dangers of cell towers. They are focused solely on the quality of cell phone service that they receive each day. Cell phone towers emit an electromagnetic field that spreads low-level radiation throughout neighborhoods. While these fields are invisible to the naked eye, the damage caused from radiation from these cell towers are not.

Electromagnetic fields have have reported health concerns because tumors called acoustic neuroma were discovered growing from inside the ear canal. The Research Center for Wireless Technology has polled physicians, scientists, and the World Heath Organization and all of these professionals say that the invisible radiation dangers of cell towers cause radiation poisoning on certain levels throughout the United States and the world. Recent scientific tests relate that just two hours of exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields can lead to permanent damage to DNA, noted specifically in brain and sex cells.

Low-frequency radiation is emitted from many electronics devices that are used in homes everyday, such as cell phones, microwave ovens, bluetooth headsets and personal laptop computers. For these devices to receive an electromagnetic signal to operate, they require a cell phone tower to be present within 100 feet of their home or office. Consistent exposure to this type of low frequency radiation can cause all types of health concerns to occur. People use bluetooth headsets with hands-free mechanisms on them to comply with certain laws. These bluetooth headsets work primarily from the signal projected from a cell phone mast, or cell tower that is close by. Knowing the health consequences, many businesses allow these cell phone towers to be projected from their buildings, because many business owners are compensated for each tower that is placed on non-commercial land. Certain studies have shown that the electromagnetic fields generated from these mobile phone towers have had a negative impact on the brain’s bioelectric activity.

Other results from studies completed in Germany at the Neurological Hospital of the University of Freiburg show that the high frequencies emitted from cell phone towers lead to a significant increase in blood pressure to those that live around the electromagnetic fields created by cell phone towers. Many biological processes are also affected by the electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular telephones, and children are truly susceptible to brain damage because their skulls are still soft, and not much will hinder these signals from getting in and causing damage. The invisible radiation dangers of cell towers are evident by the number of people that are diagnosed each day with symptoms of low-grade radiation poisoning. The damage from this type of poisoning is shown in tests to be on a cellular level. These tests show exposure to radiation in areas where mobile phones are placed on the body, mainly the head and midriff regions of the body. All associated organs in these areas of the body showed evidence of electromagnetic radiation poisoning. The cell phone chip that is found in cell phones, bluetooth headsets, and home appliances was found to be the cause for this low-grade radiation exposure.

People can protect themselves from this type of radiation exposure by using cell phone accessories that were designed to block the electromagnetic field radiation. Airtube headsets will protect people from the harmful radiation emitted by a cell phone or personal digital assistant. The airtube headset can also reduce the cognitive impairment and cancer risk associated with radiofrequency radiation exposure. Qlink pendants can block larger amounts of harmful radiation that come from the invisible radiation dangers projected by cell phone towers. Fueled by the wearer, the Qlink pendants filters out negative energy promoted by cell phone towers and mobile phones.

Storing Solar Energy – Utilizing Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

There are several CSP or concentrating solar power technologies. Usually CSP refers to large solar thermal electricity producing plants. Merely because with the thermal nature of this unique type of solar plant, the particular heat energy can be saved a lot more conveniently than electrical energy, increasing the ability to dispatch energy as well as minimizing abrupt fluctuations in output with regards to grid operators.

Central receiver is the CSP concept when a good-sized area of sun-tracking heliostats can be used to redirect and concentrate sunlight onto a tower positioned single receiver. The actual heat transfer liquid in the tower system is either water/steam or even nitrate salt, plus the latter typically features storage containers.

A majority of these nitrate salts normally consist of 60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3 and also have extremely high freezing temperatures, well over 250 degrees Fahrenheit that could be maintained using natural gas boilers along with strategic heating conduits along with the piping pathways. In case the temperatures fall below the limit, the salts freeze solid within the pipes as well as tanks, which will make restarting the system rather challenging.

One good thing about tower technologies would be that the distances between the heat collection and the extraction, tend to be very short, on the order of hundreds of meters as well as maintaining greater temperatures is more controllable. This storage process can be built to meet the needs of the utility grid and 3-16 hours of full generator load are realistic.

Parabolic trough techniques make use of a field of linear parabolic collectors spread out horizontally, as opposed to vertically, over hundreds of acres in order to focus sunshine onto long tube receivers. The heat transfer solution is normally synthetic oil, which has a freezing point of nearly 55 degrees Fahrenheit. However that is a more reasonable minimum temperature to keep within the system across several kilometers of piping.

Natural gas boilers retain a minimal temperature and keep the particular field circulating throughout the night or over cast days. Across the complete system there exists a substantial amount of heat transfer fluid inside the piping, and this technology provides approximately 30 minutes of inherent storage within a basic design. However, a two-tank molten salt storage process, with a heat exchanger between the liquid and the salts, may be included to achieve several hours of storage.

Trough plants equipped with storage improve the size of the mirror field proportionally to the storage and ensure that one part is dedicated to day-time generation and the other to recharging the storage, which is then discharged as the sun is going down.

Computer Towers Are Essential For the Desktop

Computer towers are extremely common. No, this is not your conventional telecommunication tower for the mobile network or the television. Rather, you will find this tower in almost all homes, and certainly in all commercial establishments. These are the boxes that you find beside your computer desktop. Also known as the CPU or the Central Processing Unit, this is actually an enclosure to hold several important components of your computer.

Computer Towers Explained, and Their Importance

There are two distinct part of the desktop computer – the monitor and the CPU. The monitor isn’t really that important. It is merely a display device, using which you can see your files, websites when you browse online, and off course movies too when you play them. Though the computer will not work without the monitor, but the truth is, it has got nothing to do with the technology behind the machine.

The CPU (a term for the computer tower that was used frequently earlier) on the other hand is extremely important. It is the CPU, or what is contained inside it, that actually makes the computer work. This enclosure or the computer tower holds many extremely important components such as the RAM, the battery, the CD/DVD drive, the hard drive, a floppy drive, optical drive, the motherboard, a fan to prevent the computer from over-heating, and many others like this without which the computer just cannot function. Even the switch to start the computer is located here. This button is usually located at the front of the tower so that the user can press it easily. At the back of the tower, there are various places where the wires from the monitor, and power source, and the UPS go in.

So it can be said that the tower isn’t itself very important – but it does a very important job nonetheless. It protects the most important components of the desktop.

Computer Towers and Their Different Types

The tower is often referred to by many other names such as the computer case, box, chasis, housing, or the desktop tower. You can use whichever name you like, but you would be referring to the same thing. These towers are available in all kinds of sizes. There are small mini-towers, and there are medium sized towers. And there are those that can be very big. How big a tower or case will be will depend on what it must contain. Towers are also made of different materials. It could be made of plastic, aluminum or steel. What is the future of computer towers? Many people have questioned this, and they say that it isn’t too bright. With technology improving, we today have laptops and palmtops that do not need the CPU or the computer tower. In these machines, there’s just one unit – the monitor and components are all placed here. But the fact is, the laptop or the palmtop still can’t be used for everything. For instance, designers face problems using them when they are making their designs, and writers too complain that the keyboards in these units are not good for typing.

So as things stand today, computer towers are here to stay, at least for the time being.

Cooling Tower Systems – Indispensable Equipment for Growing Businesses

Cooling towers are an indispensable part of many industrial plants these days. Today there is hardly any major industrial installation that does not utilize cooling water systems. They are a relatively inexpensive way of removing heat from cooling water used for a variety of industrial processes. Theoretically, the process of such towers is very simple to understand. The hot water from the heat exchangers is piped back to the tower which cools the water. In other words, the heat is exchanged and the water is cooled. The cooled water is sent back to cool the various industrial processes in the cooling plant.

Presently, there are two different types of cooling tower systems in use. These can be classified as natural draft towers and mechanical draft towers. Due to the immense size of the natural draft types, these are used only in larger installations such as refineries and power stations globally. However, the mechanical draft types are smaller as they use electrical fans to force a draft of air through the tower.

The water in such towers falls on the fill surfaces while moving downwards aided by gravity. This helps to increase the contact time between the water and the air, thus maximizing the heat transfer from the water to the air, which is then dispersed through the atmosphere. The cooled water is recycled through the system and the loss of evaporated water is made up by adding additional water. Many companies in India are now capable of manufacturing world-class towers. These companies are now becoming quality conscious and have now obtained ISO certification to become amongst the best cooling tower systems manufacturing companies today.

Many companies also export these systems to various countries besides manufacturing them. Due to stringent quality checks, a near zero defect production is achieved. Any defect found is rectified before the product reaches the final stages of manufacturing. Thus, such systems are now in a position to meet the rigorous demands of various industries. These systems first found use in the industrial revolution. Due to the hastening pace of manufacturing during this period, industries faced a practical problem related to disposal of excess heat. Thus, the first systems were designed during this period.

The very first towers were originally made of wood. However, the recent advances in technology have made it possible to develop a range of systems such as Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) cooling towers as well.

The Benefits of Using a DVD Tower

When your home is full of clutter, you mind is in the gutter.

Our generation has made collecting DVDs a common habit. Movies, games, installers,etc., all use the most widely accepted format; the DVD. In an average household, keeping the house from DVD clutter may be quite a task, so what most homes really need is an method of keeping their collection organized and accessible. One such way of achieving this is by purchasing a DVD-tower.

A DVD tower is a piece of furniture that serves as an organizer for your collection. It can hold quite a large number of DVDs, and obviously the more DVD’s you own the larger the tower can be. Since the point of having the collection is to preserve your DVDs’ original condition, a tower is not only useful in preventing mess throughout your home but also ensures that your collection remains intact and can be found without much hassle. Some DVD towers even have sliding glass and locks to protect your collection from little hands.

In the past, DVD towers were relatively simple in design, albeit they might be made of wood, plastic or steel. They either had compartments to hold DVDs in bundles or a specific numbers of slots to hold DVDs individually. Advancements in technology have now presented a new type of tower. These are electric-powered ones that act like a juke box for your collection. These units are quite expensive however, but despite this have proved to be quite a popular choice. Typical features provided on such a tower might include a dial that rotates the tower back and forth as you search for that elusive DVD.

The DVD tower, or other form of DVD storage really is essential in today’s modern household as they keep your DVDs safe, clean and in excellent condition. These units also mean that you can find DVDs more easily to locate and should minimize the likelihood of losing them. They can also be attractive pieces of furniture to complement your room decor.

Current and Future Trends in Wind Turbine Technology – Results of a Patent Landscaping Exercise

Utility grade wind turbines have become so technologically advanced that they have improved the cost of energy of wind enough to become more mainstream than ever before and compete with todays conventional energy sources. We have decided to conduct an investigation of the patent landscape to see what technological trends have emerged thus far and what we might be able to infer for the future direction of wind turbine technology. At this time, the assessment was limited to the most prevalent sector of wind turbine technology utility grade, horizontal axis wind turbines.

The search was conducted utilizing a comprehensive approach, as well as thorough reading and examination of results. A patent database and search portal was used which covers 90 different patent authorities worldwide, including 20 countries which provide full-text file search as well as legal status information. We first identified a set of keywords which would provide an all-inclusive set of search results. We also identified patent classes to search in order to ensure that relevant results would not be omitted. Lastly, a set of assignees of over 100+ companies who have currently or previously produced wind turbine technology / components was searched.

Aggregation of these results and elimination of duplicates as well as false positive results has led to a total set of 1461 US patents dealing with utility grade, horizontal axis wind turbines. While the scope of these search results was limited to US issued patents, most of these have equivalent foreign filings.

The results have been grouped by Assignee, and it should come as no shock to industry watchers who the top 3 assignees are for utility grade, horizontal axis wind turbine patents. For the sake of compactness, only those with 4 or more patents were included in the chart.

The search results were read and analyzed to determine a keyword classification that indicates the specific technology and component to which the invention refers. The component literally refers to the wind turbine component which the invention deals with, i.e. blade, tower, generator, gearbox, etc. The technology refers to the nature of the improvement, and deals with such topics as performance improvement, reliability enhancement, manufacturing tools or processes, safety or grid compliance. The search results are presented in a format in which each individually issued patent was assessed and classified. Therefore, continuations and divisionals are included as separate line items in the results. The following is indicative of the keyword classification methodology.

Additionally, an assessment of the relevance of the patent to the industry was performed and results were classified as low, medium, medium/high, and high. Definitions of this classification method are below. The assessment of industry relevance serves the purpose of indicating the degree to which the patent owner has or is likely to assert their rights and seek licenses or otherwise enforce the patent. This should be an indication of the proverbial landmines to watch out for when navigating a technology and product roadmap through the landscape.

• Low – Not relevant to the currently pervasive set of technologies and products in the industry.

• Medium – May have been relevant in the past, but as technology evolves it is less prevalent. These are likely to shift to low in the future.

• Medium/High – Important items which the industry needs to be cognizant of, but these can likely be avoided / mitigated. Influence of things like technology trends and grid standards will ultimately determine relevance.

• High – Critical item which has been asserted, licensed or enforced, or else it is highly likely to be in the future.

While it was not included in the set of results presented herein, two additional analysis tools can be utilized on the search results. The first is a brief synopsis of the invention that the patent is claiming, which is based on a reading of the patent and should therefore be more descriptive of the actual technology and intent of the inventor than the patent abstract. Secondly, a risk assessment can be performed according to the same methodology as the assessment of industry relevance. This will help determine the degree to which there is explicit risk of potential infringement based on technology architecture and other factors, and subsequently whether or not risk mitigation activities should be pursued.

In acknowledging that the application of these keywords, the risk assessment as well as the synopsis of the invention are all subjective, it should therefore be clear that this activity requires a certain level of technological and industry expertise.

The industry relevancy results indicate that only 2% of issued patents are a high impact on the entire industry as a whole, with another 6% which may become relevant in the future. The majority of the results, the remaining 92%, are therefore providing companies with merely defensive protection. Tangible value predominately exists on the Low and Medium impact patents if those companies are seeking equity investment or sale / divestment and their patent portfolio will require valuation, or alternatively they are licensing their portfolio to a partner or third party.

The keyword classification shows interesting, albeit obvious trends to industry watchers, but it also indicates certain areas which may present whitespace for patent protection. Obviously the blades, generators, and electrical systems of the wind turbines are the largest areas of focus historically because ultimately the efficient conversion of mechanical energy into electrical is the intent. Beyond that, it will be seen from the technology keyword classification that these three areas have been most problematic for manufacturers when it comes to component reliability, so they have garnered a great deal of attention and innovation to improve quality and performance. The emergence of controls to the top of the list is a more recent industry trend in which turbine OEMs endeavor to optimize turbine performance while operating within the design envelope.

As previously mentioned, the trend of attempting to improve reliability and efficiency of wind energy conversion has been the predominant focus of the industry over the past 2 decades. It has been this focus which has resulted in the cost or energy reduction as well as the reliability enhancement seen in that time frame. Fleet-wide availability of wind turbines has been dramatically improved, with most OEMs now quoting a 97% availability guarantee in their turbine supply agreements.

Now with turbines getting bigger in physical size as well as nameplate rating, we can see that load mitigation and construction are emerging thrusts. Shipping turbines in modular sections and assembling on-site at a wind farm will be an important area of investigation for land based turbine manufacturers. Component size has increased to such an extent that transportation of whole blades, towers, and nacelles under bridges and through tunnels is reaching its limits. Additionally, with commodity prices fluctuating during the current economic times we see many manufacturers attempting to take weight / material and therefore cost out of their products.

This analysis, as well as extensive analysis of forward looking competitive intelligence helps shape our view of future technology trends for the industry. The following are what we believe to be the emerging trends in technology, and therefore patent protection:

• Component Weight Reduction (i.e. mass / cost out to maintain tower head mass ratio) – transportation across land and sea of increasingly heavy castings, towers, blades, etc.

– Advanced materials

– Load mitigation / controls

• Turbine Reliability

– Drivetrain architecture (fewer gearbox stages)

– Elimination of gearbox – direct drive

• Fleet Management

– Condition based maintenance solutions (CBMS) as seen in the Aerospace / Defense industry today

• Performance Optimization – optimal energy production regardless of prevailing conditions

– Max energy all the time

– Derate / Uprate

– Integration of turbine controls with the Condition Monitoring System (CMS)

– Determine component remaining useful life and optimal turbine operating procedures

– Blade aero / structural performance

• Grid Friendly – requirements as identified by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and other regulatory agencies to ensure wind turbines operate much like conventional energy plants today, where output can be throttled and grid fluctuations can be absorbed, etc.

– Variable speed control with use of synchronous generator vs. induction

– Low voltage ride-through (LVRT)

– Energy storage

• Size and Transportability

– Sectional components

– On-site assembly procedures while maintaining component quality / integrity

Whatever the future may actually hold, the promise of clean energy is here. Innovation continues to drive change.

by Philip Totaro, Principal, Totaro & Associates

More Construction Has Led to Increased Tower Crane Sales

The trend of constructing tall buildings and large houses has increased tower crane sales and the distributors are observing the increased demand, which was badly affected during the recession period. The development of large projects requires large bars of steel and cement in order to build multistory buildings and houses for which using tower crane is essential. This article will discuss some of the factors that lead to an increase in sales and guide you about the usage, features and durability of the product.

Target Market
The target market for tower crane sales is large construction companies and builders. As the population is increasing day by day, the need for new housing projects and buildings is also increasing. Therefore, these tower crane manufacturers are focused on meeting the requirement by reaching to their target market and increasing sales.

After Sales Services
As the demand for constructing new multistory complexes has brought an increase in tower crane sales, the construction equipment agencies are focusing more on promotional campaigns such as the after sales services in order to provide comfort and ease to their clients. This definitely requires trained staff of engineers that can be of good use when needed and can help resolve problems with minimum downtime.

Tower cranes differ in terms of size, quality and price. Price is the major challenge that is presently being faced by the equipment industry. These cranes are very expensive which can have a negative impact on the sales. However, the quality and durability being offered by well-known companies is worth its cost. Chinese brands are however less expensive but does not offer the same quality as provided by these known brands.

There are several tower crane models that have recently been introduced resulting in further increase in sales. Some of these models include QTZ31.5, OTZ63 A, QTZ40, QTZ80 A, QTZ63 B, QTZ100A and several others. These models comprise of slewing self-climbing, trolley travel, horizontal jib frame, and novel structure.

These tower cranes are being used worldwide and it has been observed the there is awareness among both developed and underdeveloped countries regarding the recent technology being used in its development. However, there is a misconception that lower price of a product result in higher sales. This might be true for some products, however in case of these cranes it is the quality and durability that matters the most. Thus, the manufacturers and agencies should focus more on the quality side rather than the price in order to increase sales. Furthermore, government should also take a step forward and invest more on such equipments in order to improve the infrastructure of the state.

Definitive Technology Speakers – Industry’s Highest Quality

When you’re looking for high performance speakers for your home, only one name should come to mind-Definitive technology. Based in Owings Mills, MD, Definitive technology is the brain child of Sandy Gross, Don Givogue and Ed Blais-the company started creating acoustical works of art in 1990. Definitive technology speakers has given us the VCIB Mythos 1 Tower Speaker-a single silver speaker that has 2 five and a quarter inch high definition midrange drivers and a one inch pure aluminum dome tweeter.

With two mid range drivers and a tweeter, you’ll be amazed at the performance this Definitive technology speaker gives. Of course, no matter what you’re looking for-wall mounted speakers, floor units, subwoofers or anything in between, Definitive has got exactly what you’re looking for. If you are tired of paying way too much for inferior audio quality, it’s time to let Definitive take over your home sound performance issues.

They’re dedicated to quality in electronics and design. You’ll find a wide variety of components that will suit any decor in your home. What you’ll really appreciate is how easily these pieces fit into your home; you won’t need to redecorate just to match up your audio system. These are classic, timeless pieces that will keep looking good and bringing attractive and suitable audio enjoyment to your family for years to come.

Definitive Technology high end loudspeakers are sold across the United States at a variety of dealers. There is an audio solution to meet every budget when you buy Definitive Technology speakers. There are also solutions for different needs in your home as well as outdoors. To begin, Definitive creates the perfect home theater systems, combining the perfect components to give you the most complete listening experience possible.

They also sell floor standing speakers as well as wall/shelf mounted speakers. These floor speakers can come with or without built in sub-woofers. Wall or shelf mounted speaker components are discreet and unobtrusive yet get the job done, every time. The VCIB Mythos 1 Tower Speaker has a frequency response of 20Hz to 30 Hz and has 2 bass drivers and 2 bass radiators. This is the perfect addition to your home theater system.

Definitive Technology stands behind all of their product lines and is pleased to help educate consumers about the basics and also the advanced details behind creating the perfect acoustical setup for yourself, no matter how big or small your audio system is.

Work with a Definitive Technology dealer to design the best home theater system in your neighborhood. Who’s house do you think they guys will want to go to when they’re ready to watch the game? Tell your wife to call the pizza delivery guy ahead of time, they’re going to be coming in droves to watch every minute and hear every last crunch of the game from your living room.

Definitive Technology has been winning awards since they stuck a toe in the water of the home audio pool. Each year, industry magazines sing their praises and award them with trophies galore. Sure it’s great to get some recognition but that’s not why the trio from Maryland started the company. They are truly in love with what they do.

When you’re ready to set up your home theater or outdoor area with the perfect audio equipment, wouldn’t you rather buy from someone who is going to give you the best quality for the lowest price and devote themselves to your audio experience? Of course you would-find a Definitive Technology speakers dealer today and get ready for the audio experience of a lifetime with the VCIB Mythos 1 Tower Speaker.

Effective Cooling Tower Water Treatment

Here in the Phoenix metropolitan area, adverse water conditions require intelligent water treatment strategies to adequately maintain water cooled equipment. Proper management of the characteristics of the cooling tower sump water along with maintaining good tower hygiene in general accomplishes at least four positive things.

1) It avoids wasting excess water.

2) It inhibits scale formation.

3) It controls biological growth.

4) It reduces the corrosion rate of metal parts in the tower.

Let’s discuss how a cooling tower operates to understand why proper water treatment is important.

Most residents in the valley are familiar with an evaporative cooler. Water from the evaporative cooler sump is circulated by a pump over pads in the evaporative cooler and outside air is drawn through the pads. As the air is drawn through the wet pads some of the water evaporates and cools the air. The cooler air is then circulated into the space where cooling is desired. In the process of cooling the air, the water being recirculated across the pads is also cooled.

That is exactly the same principle being employed in the cooling tower, but on a much grander scale. Rejecting large quantities of heat from a building’s mechanical system requires a lot of water to be evaporated. For example, a one hundred ton water cooled chiller operating at full capacity for 24 hours would require the evaporation of more than four thousand gallons of water. That brings us to the subject of the characteristics of the make up water. Make up water is the water supply that replaces the water being evaporated in the cooling tower.

Here in the metro area, water conditions vary widely because our water comes from several different wells as well as surface sources. The water quality may change rapidly over a short period of time because different sources are utilized for the water supply. Each well has different water characteristics and they often vary widely from one side of town to the other. Water that comes from surface sources, like the Central Arizona Project will usually have significantly different characteristics than well water. Surface water quality may also be influenced by weather conditions such as drought or increased runoff.

As water evaporates in the cooling tower all of the non-volatile components stay behind in the sump of the cooling tower. There is actually a lot more in water than what we would call hardness (carbonates). There are also chlorides, suspended dust particles and biological microorganisms. As more and more water is added to replenish the water that is being evaporated, these dissolved and suspended components in the sump water continue to accumulate. If no measures are taken to control the concentration of these components in the water, the solution eventually increases in concentration to a point where “stuff” starts coming out of solution. This “stuff” ends up getting deposited on the surfaces that the water comes in contact with.

Have you ever seen an evaporative cooler where the pads haven’t been changed for a long while? I’ve seen them so encrusted with mineral deposits that the blower could no longer pull air through them. I’ve also seen them produce a bounty of biological growth in the sump water. That is exactly what will happen in a cooling tower without adequate attention to hygiene and an appropriate water treatment strategy.

When solids that are dissolved in water come out of solution they are deposited first on heat exchange surfaces and surfaces where the water is being evaporated. Heat exchangers, water cooled condensers, drift eliminators, the tube bundle in closed circuit cooling towers and the fill in open cooling towers are a few examples of surfaces where this occurs.

Deposition of mineral scale, dirt and biological fouling on any heat exchange surfaces can result in reduced heat transfer, reduced tower efficiency and increased energy costs. While reducing deposition of these is important with regard to the cooling tower, it is absolutely critical to avoid scaling or fouling in the water cooled condenser. Scaling and fouling in the condenser significantly reduces heat transfer capability and will seriously impact energy costs, performance and reliability.

A two part strategy is usually employed to manage the mineral content of the sump water. Part one is to maintain the sump water pH within allowable limits and to feed the correct type and amount of chemicals to help the water keep more of the dissolved solids in solution. Part two is intentionally sending some of the sump water down the drain (blow down). Blow down reduces the highly concentrated mineral content of the sump water by diluting it with the fresh make up water being added to replace the intentionally wasted water.

Biological growth can also become a significant health risk depending on the particular organism involved. Allowing mud and biological growth to accumulate in the sump of a cooling tower can accelerate corrosion of the sump and shorten the life cycle of the cooling tower. It can also provide a haven for microbes to escape the effects of a biocide.

Proper water treatment strategy and good cooling tower hygiene is not a one size fits all solution. The quality of the make up water will require an adjustment of the type of the chemicals and biocide utilized. It may also require changing feed and blow down rates for proper control. In addition, these requirements may be altered by the characteristics of each individual cooling tower installation.

According to Alan Bateman of DB Water Technologies, there are several things a good cooling tower water treatment program should address in order to be effective. They are total dissolved solids (TDS), hardness, pH, chlorides, suspended solids, an appropriate method for biological control and a proper blow down strategy. Each cooling tower manufacturer publishes recommendations for maintaining proper water conditions of the sump water. The advice of a qualified water treatment professional is advised to ensure that each item above is included in your overall strategy for cooling tower water treatment.